Carroll-Loye
       

Insect Repellents

Insect repellents are EPA regulated pesticides with the exception of a few specified minimal-risk formulations. Because of their public health significance, insect repellent developers must provide efficacy data. Acute toxicity data are also mandatory, along with product chemistry and stability characterizations. Other data may be required at EPA discretion. Insect repellents may be categorized as either conventional or biopesticides.

Efficacy Developmental topical repellents are tested in lab and field, with captive or wild arthropods. We customize are methods to serve development goals (in vitro, in vivo, wind tunnel, olfactometer, arm-in-cage, field). For registration against mosquitoes, human subject field data are required from two habitat types and against three types of mosquitoes. Spatial (area) repellent development may also begin on small scales, but ultimately requires field or semi-field (screen house) data for EPA registration.

Toxicity Insect repellents are often developed for cosmetic appeal and must also insure user and environmental safety. US EPA requires acute toxicity testing for pesticides to be registered, and for compounds that are poorly known may also require testing for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity etc.

Registration We support all steps of product development and registration, including compliance, submission and maintenance. See our Registration section for details.